Private Pilots License (PPL)
Sources: CAA, EASA PART-FCL
What is a PPL?
A private Pilot’s license (PPL) is the most basic form of pilot’s license. A PPL permits its holder to ‘act as pilot in command (PIC) in non-commercial operations on airplanes or touring motor glider (TMGs).’ Most PPL holders use their license solely for pleasure flying either as individuals or as members of a flying club.
What are the minimum requirements to get a PPL?
PPL minimum requirements include 45 hours logged instruction on aeroplanes or TMG’s (Touring Motor Gliders), 5 hours of which may have been completed in a simulator training device. These hours must include at least 25 hours of supervised flight instruction and 10 hours of supervised solo flight time, including at least 5 hours of solo cross country flight time with at least 1 cross country flight of at least 270 km (150 NM) that includes full stop landings at 2 aerodromes different from the departure aerodrome. Full requirements can be found on the CAA website or page 210 of the EASA PART-FCL. Students must also complete 9 Ground School (LINK TO GS BELOW) exams as part of their license.
How can I take the PPL to the next level?
There are several ways to get more out of the PPL, some of the more popular license additions are listed below.
IMC Rating – The Instrument meteorological rating is designed to allow pilots to fly in slightly more marginal weather conditions than on a full PPL flying under standard VFR conditions. In order to undertake an IMC rating, PPL holders must have completed 25 hours of flying post PPL issue and 10 hours of PIC (Pilot in command) with at least 5 hours of these as cross-country flying. It is important to note that the IMC rating is not a replacement or substitute for the Instrument Rating (IR). A good website for further reading on the IMC rating can be found here.
Night Rating – The night rating is a five hour course which, when completed allows PPL holders to fly after sunset. The course comprises at least three hours of dual instruction, one hour of cross country navigation and five solo take-offs and landings.
Class Ratings – Most PPL holders will only hold a valid Single Engine Piston class rating. Additional class ratings may be applied to the PPL allowing the holder to fly different types of aircraft covered by their license but for which they require additional training, such aircraft may include taildragger aircraft or multi-engine piston aircraft, for which you require a CPL. Larger aircraft ratings require the license holder to undertake a type rating and often require a CPL or ATPL.
How much does a PPL cost?
The average cost of a PPL in the UK is around £5,000-£8,000 depending on the amount of training undertaken (minimum 45 hours). Costs vary heavily depending on location (due to landing fees etc), type of aircraft used to train and amount of lessons taken. Some training providers offer fast-track courses which can sometimes work out cheaper, see our list of training providers for more information Click here.
Minimum hours to obtain Single Engine Piston (SEP)
A minimum of 45 hours flight training comprising at least
- (i) 25 hours dual instruction
- (ii) 10 hours solo of which a minimum must be 5 hours solo cross-country flying
- (iii) some instrument flying
- 9 ground school exams
- Practical radio exam
- Final Skills Test with a flight examiner
Training providers will be able to assist with more detail for the course.
What can I do with a PPL?
The key here is in the name ‘Private’, the private pilot’s license allows you to partake in flying activities of a non-commercial nature (i.e. unpaid), unless the holder also possesses an instructor/examiner rating. A basic PPL allows its holder to fly in VFR (Visual Flight Rules) conditions in most airspace types, a full guide to VFR flying in the UK can be found here. As VFR flying has many restrictions (such as being clear of cloud and in sight of the ground), pilots wishing to fly in more marginal weather conditions can upgrade their license to include an IMC (Instrument Meteorological Conditions) rating or full Instrument Rating.
How long will it take?
Depending on the type of course chosen, a PPL can be completed in as little as a number of weeks, however this would be full time study and flying and is often considered impractical. Most PPL students work during their training and often fly on average 1-2 times per week, at this rate most students are ready for their Skills Test (LINK to ST BELOW) in about 10-14 months from their start of training, however this may take longer with allowances made for poor weather which can often hinder students in winter months, for this reason it’s often best to plan to undertake the bulk of the training in the spring/summer.
What does the Skills Test consist of?
The PPL skills test is the practical flying test for the issue of a PPL and usually lasts around an hour. The skills test requires the student to plan a route from one aerodrome to another (or sometimes to a point, returning to the departure aerodrome), the route should include at least 3 navigational points and must be flown within a set of tolerances – a full list of these can be found on page 201 of the EASA PART-FCL. Other test items include general handling (steep turns, practiced forced landings and basic stalls) and various types of approach and landing to demonstrate the minimum skills required to qualify for a PPL. More information on skills tests can be found here.
What is an RT Test?
The radio telephony operator license test is the examination taken by all pilots before they can be issued with their aircraft license. In order to undertake the test, candidates must have completed the communications ground school exam (within the last 24 months) and demonstrated a language proficiency of at least level 4. The RT exam is a practical test in which candidates must demonstrate their knowledge of standard radio phraseology and procedures to an examiner, the test is often undertaken using computer software and full headset/microphone equipment.
How long is the license valid for?
Valid 2 years
The only CAA currency requirement is for 3 take-offs and landings within 90 days to carry passengers. Clubs will probably impose their own currency requirements which will be more strict.
To remain current at the 2 year point:
12 hours in the last 12 months (plus 12 T/Os and Landings) + a 1hr flight with an instructor. Once you have achieved this you need to present your logbook to an examiner or an instructor with FCL945 privileges who will sign your license and complete CAA form SRG1119E. If you forget to do this and you pass the 2 year point then your effort has been wasted and you will require a proficiency check. Signatures can not be back-dated.
Proficiency check. This is a pass/fail test and the profile is at the discretion of the examiner but you should expect some navigation, steep turns, stalls, PFL, ccts.
Where Can I get a PPL?
Click here to view our a flight school finder.
What does the Ground School consist of?
The PPL ground school requires you to pass a total of 9 multiple-choice examinations on the following subjects:
Air Law – 16 Questions – 35 Minutes – Topics covered range from ICAO (International Civil Aviation Organisation) directives to the rules of the air.
Meteorology – 16 Questions – 50 Minutes – Topics covered range from basic weather theory including clouds, precipitation and winds to the practical application of this knowledge in a flying environment.
Aircraft General Knowledge – 16 Questions – 35 Minutes – Topics covered range from Engines, Instruments and Fuel to Airframes, Electrics and Hydraulics.
Navigation and Radio Aids – 12 Questions – 45 Minutes – Topics covered range from form of the earth and GPS to modern day radio aid navigation. This exam includes practical navigation elements using tools such as plotting devices.
Human Performance and Limitations – 12 Questions – 25 Minutes – Topics covered range from psychology to physiology in the aviation environment.
Flight Performance and Planning – 12 Questions – 45 Minutes – Topics include aircraft take-off and landing performance to fuel planning. This practical exam requires the student to perform map and aircraft manual-based calculations as part of the test.
VFR Communications – 12 Questions – 20 Minutes – Topics covered include Radio Telephony (RT)(LINK TO BELOW), basic radio theory and aviation radio phraseology. As part of your PPL you will also be required to complete a practical Radio Telephony License test.
Operational Procedures – 12 Questions – 30 Minutes – Topics cover all authority-regulated procedures applicable to PPL holders.
Principles of Flight – 12 Questions – 35 Minutes – Topics cover basic aerodynamic theory including lift, drag and thrust.
A full syllabus of PPL ground school topics can be found on Page 194 of the EASA PART-FCL. Students are given 18 months in which to complete all of the above examinations, this begins at the end of the calendar month in which the first examination attempt was completed.
If you have an EASA pilot’s licence (PPL or LAPL) you can add night ratings to allow you to fly in visual flight rules (VFR) conditions at night. Night in the UK is from 30 minutes after sunset to 30 minutes before sunrise but is defined nationally in each ICAO country.
If you have a LAPL licence you must first have completed the basic instrument flight training required within the PPL(A) syllabus that was not in your licence. Pilots who have converted to a LAPL from another licence, other than an NPPL may already have this training. If you have a LAPL medical certificate it must be endorsed as color safe in order to add a night rating.
You’ll need to be trained at an ATO. The course will include theory, dual instruction and solo flight time at night.
The night rating is valid for life. But if you want to carry passengers at night the normal passenger rules of ‘3 take-off and landings in past 90 days’ apply, with the addition that, unless you have a valid instrument rating, at least one of each must have been at night.
To add night ratings to an aeroplane (A) licence your training will cover:
Theoretical knowledge instruction
5 hours of flight time at night including at least:
3 hours of dual flying instruction
1 hour of cross-country navigation with at least one dual cross-country flight of at least 50km
5 solo take-offs and 5 solo full-stop landings
If you already hold an instrument rating (IR) in an aeroplane or TMG you can credit 5 hours towards the requirement of 10 hours of dual instrument instruction time.
Light Aircraft Pilots License (LAPL)
The Light Aircraft Pilot Licence (LAPL) is designed for those of you who like to enjoy the thrill of flying. Whether you wish to fly your loved ones through the clear blue skies, over the beautiful countryside or take them somewhere nice for lunch. Once you have your LAPL license the possibilities are endless!
LIGHT AIRCRAFT PILOT LICENCE PRIVILEGES AND CONDITIONS
(a) The privileges of the holder of a LAPL for aeroplanes are to act as Pilot in command (PIC) on single engine piston aeroplanes with a maximum certificated take-off mass of 2000 kg or less, carrying a maximum of 3 passengers, such that there are never more than 4 persons on board of the aircraft.
(b) Holders of an LAPL (A) shall only carry passengers once they have completed 10 hours of flight time as PIC on aeroplanes.
(a) Applicants for a LAPL (A) shall have completed at least 30 hours of flight training on aeroplanes including;
(1) 15 hours of dual flight instruction in the class in which the skill test will be taken.
(2) 6 hours of supervised solo flight time, including at least 3 hours of solo cross country navigation flight time with at least 1 cross-country flight of at least 150 km (80 NM), during which 1 full stop landing at an aerodrome different from the aerodrome of departure shall be made.
THEORETICAL KNOWLEDGE EXAMINATION
There are 9 subjects which, with one to one tuition or self-study, are readily attainable. The one to one tuition is part of our package and highly recommended. Alternatively you can do them all by self-study if this is more convenient for you, the choice is yours.
At a glance and to summarise:
- 30 hours flight training, 6 hours solo of which 3 hours must be cross country.
- 80nm landing at one aerodrome different than departure.
- Pilot In Command without passengers until 10 hours
- Up to 2000kg with maximum of 4 people on board (including pilot) once licence issue has been gained.
- VFR Day/Night (if qualified) EU airspace only.
- Limiations are weather minima VFR in sight of surface 1.5km visibility outside controlled airspace or 5km in class C and D airspace.
- No extra ratings can be added such as night rating and IMC.
- Non Expiring Lifetime License