Examiner

Sources: CAA, EASA PART-FCL

Holders of an examiner certificate shall:

(1) hold an equivalent licence, rating or certificate to the ones for which they are authorised to conduct skill tests, proficiency checks or assessments of competence and the privilege to instruct for them;

(2) be qualified to act as PIC on the aircraft during a skill test, proficiency check or assessment of competence when conducted on the aircraft.

Examiners shall not conduct:

(a) skill tests or assessments of competence of applicants for the issue of a licence, rating or certificate:

(1) to whom they have provided more than 25 % of the required flight instruction for the licence, rating or certificate for which the skill test or assessment of competence is being taken; or

 (2) when they have been responsible for the recommendation for the skill test, in accordance with FCL.030(b);

(b) skill tests, proficiency checks or assessments of competence whenever they feel  that their objectivity may be affected.

Prerequisites for examiners

Applicants for an examiner certificate shall demonstrate:

(a) relevant knowledge, background and appropriate experience related to the privileges of an examiner;

(b) that they have not been subject to any sanctions, including the suspension, limitation or revocation of any of their licences, ratings or certificates issued in accordance with this Part, for non-compliance with the Basic Regulation and its Implementing Rules during the last 3 years.

Examiner standardisation

(a) Applicants for an examiner certificate shall undertake a standardisation course provided by the competent authority or by an ATO and approved by the competent authority.

(b) The standardisation course shall consist of theoretical and practical instruction and shall include, at least:

(1) the conduct of 2 skill tests, proficiency checks or assessments of competences for the licences, ratings or certificates for which the applicant seeks the privilege to conduct tests and checks;
(2) instruction on the applicable requirements in this part and the applicable air operations requirements, the conduct of skill tests, proficiency checks and assessments of competence, and their documentation and reporting;
(3) a briefing on the national administrative procedures, requirements for protection of personal data, liability, accident insurance and fees;
(4) a briefing on the need to review and apply the items in (3) when conducting skill tests, proficiency checks or assessments of competence of an applicant for which the competent authority is not the same that issued the examiner’s certificate; and
(5) an instruction on how to get access to these national procedures and requirements of other competent authorities when needed;

(c) Holders of an examiners certificate shall not conduct skill tests, proficiency checks or assessments of competence of an applicant for which the competent authority is not the same that issued the examiner’s certificate, unless they have reviewed the latest available information containing the relevant national procedures of the applicant’s competent authority.

Types of examiners:
Flight Examiner (FE)
Type rating Examiner (TRE)
Class rating Examiner(CRE)
Instrument rating Examiner (IRE)
Synthetic Flight Examiner (SFE)
Flight instructor Examiner(FIE)

Examiner standardisation

(a) An examiner should plan per day not more than:

(1) three tests or checks relating to PPL, CPL, IR or class ratings;

(2) four tests or checks relating to LAPL, SPL or BPL;

(3) two tests or checks related to CPL, IR or ATPL;

(4) two assessments of competence related to instructor certificates;

(5) four tests or checks relating to SP type ratings.

(b) An examiner should plan at least 2 hours for a LAPL, SPL or BPL, 3 hours for a PPL, CPL, IR

or class rating test or checks, and at least 4 hours for FI, CPL, IR, MPL, ATPL or MP type rating tests or checks, including pre-flight briefing and preparation, conduct of the test, check or assessment of competence, de-briefing, evaluation of the applicant and documentation.

(c) When planning the duration of a test, check or assessment of competence, the following values may be used as guidance:

(1) 45 minutes for a LAPL(B) or BPL and SP class ratings VFR only;

(2) 90 minutes for LAPL(A) or (H), PPL and CPL, including navigation section;

(3) 60 minutes for IR, FI and SP type or class ratings;

(4) 120 minutes for CPL, MPL, ATPL and MP type ratings.

(d) For the LAPL(S) and SPL test or check flight the flight time must be sufficient to allow that all the items in each test or check section can be fully completed. If not all the items can be completed in one flight, additional flights have to be done.

STANDARDISATION ARRANGEMENTS FOR EXAMINERS

LIMITATIONS

(a) An examiner should allow an applicant adequate time to prepare for a test or check, normally not more than 1 hour.

(b) An examiner should plan a test or check flight so that all required exercises can be performed while allowing sufficient time for each of the exercises and with due regard to the weather conditions, traffic situation, ATC requirements and local procedures.

PURPOSE OF A TEST OR CHECK

(c) Determine through practical demonstration during a test or check that an applicant has acquired or maintained the required level of knowledge and skill or proficiency.

(d) Improve training and flight instruction in ATOs by feedback of information from examiners about items or sections of tests or checks that are most frequently failed.

(e) Assist in maintaining and, where possible, improving air safety standards by having examiners display good airmanship and flight discipline during tests or checks.

CONDUCT OF TEST OR CHECK

(f) An examiner will ensure that an applicant completes a test or check in accordance with Part- FCL requirements and is assessed against the required test or check standards.

(g) Each item within a test or check section should be completed and assessed separately. The test or check schedule, as briefed, should not normally be altered by an examiner. A failed item is not always a failed section, for example type rating skill test where a failure of an item in a section does not fail the entire section, only the failed item is taken again.

(h) Marginal or questionable performance of a test or check item should not influence an examiner’s assessment of any subsequent items.

(i) An examiner should verify the requirements and limitations of a test or check with an applicant during the pre-flight briefing.

(j) When a test or check is completed or discontinued, an examiner should debrief the applicant and give reasons for items or sections failed. In case of a failed or discontinued skill test and proficiency check, the examiner should provide appropriate advice to assist the applicant in re-tests or re-checks.

(k) Any comment on, or disagreement with, an examiner’s test or check evaluation or

assessment made during a debriefing will be recorded by the examiner on the test or check report, and will be signed by the examiner and countersigned by the applicant.

EXAMINER PREPARATION

(l) An examiner should supervise all aspects of the test or check flight preparation, including, where necessary, obtaining or assuring an ATC ‘slot’ time.

(m) An examiner will plan a test or check in accordance with Part-FCL requirements. Only the manoeuvres and procedures set out in the appropriate test or check form will be undertaken. The same examiner should not re-examine a failed applicant without the agreement of the applicant.

EXAMINER APPROACH

(n) An examiner should encourage a friendly and relaxed atmosphere to develop both before and during a test or check flight. A negative or hostile approach should not be used. During the test or check flight, the examiner should avoid negative comments or criticisms and all assessments should be reserved for the debriefing.

ASSESSMENT SYSTEM

(o) Although test or checks may specify flight test tolerances, an applicant should not be expected to achieve these at the expense of smoothness or stable flight. An examiner should make due allowance for unavoidable deviations due to turbulence, ATC instructions, etc. An examiner should terminate a test or check only when it is clear that the applicant has not been able to demonstrate the required level of knowledge, skill or proficiency and that a full re-test will be necessary or for safety reasons. An examiner will use one of the following terms for assessment:

(1) a ‘pass’, provided that the applicant demonstrates the required level of knowledge, skill or proficiency and, where applicable, remains within the flight test tolerances for the

licence or rating;

(2) a ‘fail’ provided that any of the following apply:

(i) the flight test tolerances have been exceeded after the examiner has made due allowance for turbulence or ATC instructions;

(ii) the aim of the test or check is not completed;

(iii) the aim of exercise is completed but at the expense of safe flight, violation of a rule or regulation, poor airmanship or rough handling;

(iv) an acceptable level of knowledge is not demonstrated;

(v) an acceptable level of flight management is not demonstrated;

(vi) the intervention of the examiner or safety pilot is required in the interest of safety.

(3) a ‘partial pass’ in accordance with the criteria shown in the relevant skill test appendix of Part-FCL.

METHOD AND CONTENTS OF THE TEST OR CHECK

(p) Before undertaking a test or check an examiner will verify that the aircraft or FSTD intended to be used is suitable and appropriately equipped for the test or check.

(q) A test or check flight will be conducted in accordance with the AFM and, if applicable, the AOM.

(r) A test or check flight will be conducted within the limitations contained in the operations manual of an ATO.

(s) Contents:

(1) a test or check is comprised of:

(i) oral examination on the ground (where applicable);

(ii) pre-flight briefing;

(iii) in-flight exercises;

(iv) post-flight debriefing.

(2) oral examination on the ground should include:

(i) aircraft general knowledge and performance;

(ii) planning and operational procedures;

(iii) other relevant items or sections of the test or check.

(3) pre-flight briefing should include:

(i) test or check sequence;

(ii) power setting, speeds and approach minima, if applicable;

(iii) safety considerations.

(4) in-flight exercises will include each relevant item or section of the test or check;

(5) post-flight debriefing should include:

(i) assessment or evaluation of the applicant;

(ii) documentation of the test or check with the applicant’s FI present, if possible.

(t) A test or check is intended to simulate a practical flight. Thus, an examiner may set practical scenarios for an applicant while ensuring that the applicant is not confused and air safety is not compromised.

(u) When manoeuvres are to be flown by sole reference to instruments, the examiner should ensure that a suitable method of screening is used to simulate IMC.

(v) An examiner should maintain a flight log and assessment record during the test or check for reference during the post or flight debriefing.

(w) An examiner should be flexible to the possibility of changes arising to pre-flight briefings due to ATC instructions, or other circumstances affecting the test or check.

(x) Where changes arise to a planned test or check an examiner should be satisfied that the applicant understands and accepts the changes. Otherwise, the test or check flight should be terminated.

(y) Should an applicant choose not to continue a test or check for reasons considered inadequate by an examiner, the applicant will be assessed as having failed those items or sections not attempted. If the test or check is terminated for reasons considered adequate by the examiner, only these items or sections not completed will be tested during a subsequent test or check.

(z) An examiner may terminate a test or check at any stage, if it is considered that the

applicant’s competency requires a complete re-test or re-check.

Examiner standardisation

(a) An examiner should plan per day not more than:

(1) three tests or checks relating to PPL, CPL, IR or class ratings;

(2) four tests or checks relating to LAPL, SPL or BPL;

(3) two tests or checks related to CPL, IR or ATPL;

(4) two assessments of competence related to instructor certificates;

(5) four tests or checks relating to SP type ratings.

(b) An examiner should plan at least 2 hours for a LAPL, SPL or BPL, 3 hours for a PPL, CPL, IR

or class rating test or checks, and at least 4 hours for FI, CPL, IR, MPL, ATPL or MP type rating tests or checks, including pre-flight briefing and preparation, conduct of the test, check or assessment of competence, de-briefing, evaluation of the applicant and documentation.

(c) When planning the duration of a test, check or assessment of competence, the following values may be used as guidance:

(1) 45 minutes for a LAPL(B) or BPL and SP class ratings VFR only;

(2) 90 minutes for LAPL(A) or (H), PPL and CPL, including navigation section;

(3) 60 minutes for IR, FI and SP type or class ratings;

(4) 120 minutes for CPL, MPL, ATPL and MP type ratings.

(d) For the LAPL(S) and SPL test or check flight the flight time must be sufficient to allow that all the items in each test or check section can be fully completed. If not all the items can be completed in one flight, additional flights have to be done.